“Groundwater chemistry and the possibility for treatment using titanium lithium vanadate in some localities, East Delta, Egypt”

Jilan Abd El Wahab Mohammed Omar


Abstract


This study divided to main parts to study the Hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater and the effect of the surface water on the groundwater composition and to detect the pollution in the study area and to suggest a suitable chemical treatment to the heavy metals in the groundwater in the presented aquifer The present study depends on a number of 69 water samples (surface and groundwater), represented the different aquifers in the study area and these samples were investigated and hydrochemically evaluated through the following activities; 1-Intensive field measurements were carried out on all the water points in the study area for hydrological, physical and chemical parameters to cover all the possible variations in temporal and spatial aspects. Also, in situ measurements of water samples location were carried out in the field using GPS model (Magellan Nave 5000 pro.) for the delineation of latitudes and longitudes. 2-Carrying out chemical analysis for all the collected water samples to determine the concentrations of major constituents (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO32-, HCO3-, SO42-, Cl- and SiO2), some minor constituents (PO43- and NO3-) and, soluble heavy metals Fe, Pb, Cu, Sr, Al, Cd and Mn were determined. 3-The saturation indices of carbonates and non-carbonates minerals were computed by NETPATH model program for groundwater samples of the different aquifers. 4- Office work Collecting the geomorphological, geological and hydrogeological data of the study area from the previous study and internal reports. Using a topographic map (scale 1: 1000,000) for the delineation of the studied area. Using of different software packages data processing, mapping and classification. They include the following:- Tabulation and interpretation for the resulted data and preparing all the graphical representation and maps for the analytical results through using some computer programs as Surfer 8, Excel, Win-word for windows, NETPATH- windows, PHREQC, Aquachem and Statistical analysis (SPSS). This thesis include six chapters as follow. Chapter 1: Introduction. PART I This chapter includes the location of the study area, notes on the geology and geomorphology of the study area and the hydrogeology of the aquifers present in the study area (Pleistocene Aquifer and Miocene Aquifer) PART II includes the history of ion exchange process, classification of ion exchangers, types of inorganic ion exchangers, literature survey includes the vanadate family. Also this part through the light on the Properties of synthetic inorganic ion exchangers and also factors affecting the sorption Process Chapter II: Experimental PART I In this chapter, the procedures and international methods used in the collection and analysis of groundwater samples were followed in DRC labs. PART II includes the method of preparation of titanium vanadate and lithium titanium vanadate, the chemicals used and their purity as well as the instrumentation, the analytical techniques and the procedures used in this thesis. RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION This section includes four parts as follow: Part I: hydrochemistry of the groundwater. In this part we deal with chemical analyses of 69 groundwater samples that collected from the three areas and 6 surface water samples represent the mail canals and drains in the area, also studying the distribution of the main component of water e.g., electric conductance (EC), pH, total salinity nd major ions in the groundwater which found to follow the same trend as the salinity. Studying hydrochemical coefficients, ion dominance and the hypothetical salts. Genesis and evolution of the groundwater water were studied by constructed Scholler and Piper's diagrams. In this chapter we through the light on the pollution in the surface water and groundwater in these areas. It was found that the groundwater polluted by organic pollutants as COD and BOD nd by the heavy metal as Sr2+, Fe3+ and Al3+ which present in concentration higher than permissible by WHO. Part II: Hydrogeochemical modeling and statistical analysis. This part aim to evaluate the Quaternary aquifer by using The software package Mass-Balance Model, NETPATH for windows to perform a variety of aqueous geochemical calculations including the saturation indices (SI) of the major mineral phases, testing of water corrosivity, influencing of the surface water on the groundwater and to apply water mixing models. From the saturation indices (SI) of the major mineral phases in the Quaternary aquifer in the investigated groundwater samples we can conclude that. - All the groundwater samples are supersaturated with respect to the main carbonate minerals (Calcite, Aragonite, Dolomite and Rhodochor), which reflect slightly alkaline character to groundwater. - Most of groundwater are supersaturated with respect to iron minerals phases (Hematite, Goethite, Siderite and Fe(OH)3 such minerals reflect the sensitivity of iron to oxidation even in low concentrations - Few groundwater samples are supersaturated with respect to phosphate minerals (Hydroxap and Viviante) which concentrated in El Gabal Al Asfar farm; this is due to agricultural activities in this area. - Most of groundwater samples are supersaturated with espect to Gibbs. By testing the Corrosivity we conclude that. - The majority of groundwater samples in El Gabal Al Asfar area are mild scale forming and in El Adelya area the majority of the groundwater samples are some faint coating. - In El Gabal Al Asfar area there are mixing in groundwater samples Nos. 1 to 12 inclusive from Ismailia canal and El Belbasy drain rang from low to high From the mixing model we conclude that. - In El Gabal Al Asfar area there are mixing in groundwater samples Nos. 13 to 31 inclusive from El Belbasy drain, El Gabal Al Asfar drain and the mixed drain rang from low to moderate. - On trilinear diagram most of groundwater samples are clustered around surface water, indicating the effect of leakage on their chemistry - In El Adelya area there are mixing in all groundwater samples from El Adelya canal, samples Nos. 32 to 44 inclusive range from moderate to very high the rest of the samples have low mixing. Pearson Correlation Coefficients were calculated for twenty variables (pH, EC, TDS, total hardness, alkalinity, permanent hardness, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-, NO3-, PO43-, Al3+, Sr2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, COD and BOD). R-mode factor analysis was made on the same twenty variables, five principal factors were obtained for groundwater in El Gabal Al Asfar area a- F1 factor is composed of EC, TDS, total hardness, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-, NO3-, Al3+, Sr2+, and Fe3+. b- F2 is composed of pH, Na+, NO3-, PO4-3 and Mn2+. c- F3 is composed of alkalinity and HCO3-. d- F4 is composed of COD e- F5 is composed of Al 3+ Four principal factors were obtained for groundwater in El Adelya area a- F1 is composed of EC, TDS, total hardness, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, Cl-, NO3- and Sr2+. b- F2 is composed of PO4-3 and COD c- F3 is composed of HCO3-, SO42- and Mn2+. d- F4 is composed of Fe3+. Finally hierarchical clusters (Dendrogram) were constructed; most of groundwater samples are clustered around the surface water samples confirming the effect of surface water system on the groundwater and the data is in agreement with the mixing ratio. Part III: Assessment of groundwater quality for different uses. Water quality assessment for drinking, laundry and domestic purposes: In El Gabal Al Asfar area (according to salinity) - 13% of the groundwater samples are Acceptable for drinking and the rest of the samples are permissible. - For drinking of livestock and poultry 90% of the groundwater samples are excellent, and the rest of the samples are very satisfactory. - According to hardness all the groundwater samples are very hard for laundry uses.


Other data

Other Titles كيمياء المياه الجوفيه و إمكانية معالجتها بأستخدام فانيدات التيتانيوم والليثيوم لبعض المناطق بشرق الدلتا - مصر
Issue Date 2015
URI http://research.asu.edu.eg/handle/12345678/20139


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