Hormonal and Biochemical Effects of Omega-3 on Albino Rats Following Treatment with Some Water Disinfection By Products (DBPs)

Nehal Abd El Fattah Abd El Wahed, Prof. Dr. Ola Serag El Din Ezz El Din Serag El Din, Dr. Batta Hamdy Abd El Azim ; Nehal abd elfaatah 


Abstract


The present work is designed to investigate harms of endocrine disrupting compound (EDCs) present in drinking water on some endocrine glands and role of salmon diet to relive such harms. Weaning male and female Wister albino rats (21-28 days old) with average body weight (55-60 gm) were used in the present study. Each sex was randomly divided into 5 groups: 1st group weaning control group (n=20), 2nd group adult control group (n=20), 3 rd group weaning tap water treated group (n= 40), 4th group adult tap water treated group (n=20) and 5 th group salmon diet treated group (n=20). At the end of the experimental period the results showed that serum level of free testosterone in weaning tap water treated group decreased significantly compared to weaning control group. Also, testosterone level decreased significantly in adult tap water treated group compared with adult control group. While, salmon diet for three months increased testosterone hormone level compared to adult tap water treated group. Likewise, serum level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) significantly decreased in weaning and adult tap water treated groups versus weaning and adult control groups. Meanwhile, salmon diet elevated this decrease and induced significant increase in serum FSH level. But, luteinizing hormone (LH) level decreased significantly only in rats which received tap water for five months. On the other hand, serum level of free estradiol (E2) increased significantly in adult tap water treated group compared with adult control group. However, salmon diet ameliorated the decrease in LH and E2 levels compared to adult tap water treated group. Moerover, testes weight increased significantly in rats receiving tap water for five months. However, salmon diet returned this increase around control level. Moreover, this study found significant decrease in left cauda sperm count and rapid progressive motility but slow or sluggish motility increased significanly and immotility increased significanly in adult rats receiving tap water for five months compared with the purified water group. Also, EDCs caused a marked increase in morphological abnormalities of sperms. While, salmon diet for three months induced significant increase in sperm count also decreased immotile sperm and showed slight increase in slow or sluggish progressive motility. In addition, salmon diet decreased some morphological abnormalities of sperms. Our histopathological study confirmed the biochemical data as the seminiferous tubules of treated rats contained numerous exfoliated degenerative germ cells with reduced sperm density. In addition, the rounded shape of the tubules changed to become oval-like shape. These changes in the tubular shape resulted in an elongation of the tubules thus increasing the mean diameter of seminiferous tubules in comparison with those of adult control group. Free E2 in weaning and adult rats receiving tap water EDCs for two months and five months increased significantly compared with purified water. While, salmon diet returned this increase in E2 to normal level. However, serum level of total E2 showed non-significant increase in rats which received tap water for two months and five months. This was associated with non-significant decrease in serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in tap water groups after two and five months. But, salmon diet group showed a significant increase in serum levels of total E2 and SHBG. On the other hand, progesterone hormone didn’t show any significant change in tap water and salmon treated group. Tap water induced significant decrease in serum levels of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) after two and five months. Meanwhile, salmon diet treated this decrease and induced significant increase in serum AMH. Serum levels of LH and FSH in weaning tap water treated groups increased compared with control groups. But serum levels of LH and FSH decreased in rats which received tap water for five months. However, salmon diet showed non-significant increase in serum levels of LH and FSH. Ovary weight was not affected in tap water group or salmon group .Uterus weight significantly increased in tap water group after five months. However, salmon diet decreased this increase. Mammary weight increased significantly only in rats receiving tap water for five months. However, salmon diet showed slight decrease in mammary weight. The present histological study showed increase in the circumference of the uterine lumen and obvious proliferative changes in the luminal epithelia of rats treated with water EDCs. However, uterus of salmon group showed decrease in the proliferation of luminal epithelia. Also, the present work showed obvious proliferation of mammary gland ducts. But, salmon diet showed obvious decrease in proliferation of ducts. In addition, the current study found that treated rats with water EDCs resulted in obvious reduction in the number of ovarian follicles. On the other hand, salmon diet showed improvement in follicular count. This study showed that tap water EDCs and salmon diet had no effects on serum free triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in weaning and adult male rats, But, in weaning female rats the present study showed significant decrease in serum T3 only after receiving tap water for two months. However, no effects were detected in adult tap water and salmon diet treated groups. Also, no effect was detected on thyroid gland weight in all treated groups. In addition, the histological study showed no effect on thyroid follicles in tap water and salmon diet treated groups compared with control groups. Tap water EDCs in adult male rats significantly decreased serum calcium (Ca++) this was assosiated with no change in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus and 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1, 25(OH)2D3). But, omega-3 (n-3) salmon diet returned this increase in serum Ca++ level around level of purified water cortrol group however, serum phosphorus and PTH decreased respectively. On the other hand, salmon diet showed no significant effect on serum 1, 25(OH)2D3 The present study showed significant decrease in serum Ca++ in female tap water treated group this was assosiated with no change in serum PTH, phosphorus and 1, 25(OH)2D3. But, n-3 in salmon diet returned serum level of Ca ++ and 1, 25(OH)2D3 around cortrol group which received purified water. However, slight decrease were detected in serum phosphorus and PTH compared with control group. Serum levels of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone and adrenal weight in all treated groups were almost around the control levels. Also adrenal histological structure showed unremarkable changes which indicated no effect of tap water and salmon diet on the pituitary adrenal axis of male and female rats. Tap water had no effect on lipid profile but salmon diet significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) but significantly increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) however no effects were detected in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin and glucose. This was associated with no change in male rats body weight of all treated groups. Tap water group didn’t show any significant effect on female rats lipid profile. Whereas, the reduction of TC and TG was only observed in rats which received salmon diet but no effects were recorded in the current study on HDL-C, LDL-C, glucose and insulin. This was associated with no change in in female rats body weight of all treated groups.


Other data

Other Titles التأثيرات الهرمونية والبيوكيميائية لأحماض أوميجا-3 على الجرذان البيضاء بعد العلاج ببعض المركبات الثانوية الناتجة من تطهير المياه.
Issue Date 2011
Description Thesis Submitted For the Fulfillment of PH.D. Degree in Zoology
URI http://research.asu.edu.eg/handle/123456789/1355


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