Effect of selenium-containing compounds on hepatic chemoprotective enzymes in miceEl-Sayed, Wael ; Aboul-Fadl, Tarek ; Lamb, John G ; Roberts, Jeanette C ; Franklin, Michael R
AbstractSelenite and organoselenium compounds have been examined at supranutritional levels for their ability to influence the activity and mRNA levels of chemoprotective enzymes in the livers of selenium-sufficient mice and the changes compared to those elicited by oltipraz. Compounds investigated included novel selenocysteine prodrugs that have previously been evaluated for their ability to reduce the tumorigenicity of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in mice. Following seven daily doses (i.g.), all compounds except 2-methylselenazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acid (MSCA) increased thioredoxin reductase activity (43-92%) but only for 2-oxoselenazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acid (OSCA) was there an accompanying increase in mRNA. No compound enhanced glutathione peroxidase activity, although sodium selenite significantly elevated the mRNA of this enzyme. Oltipraz was an efficacious inducer of both thioredoxin reductase and glutathione peroxidase mRNAs. Sodium selenite, selenazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acid (SCA), and OSCA elevated NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase mRNA but only for OSCA was the elevation in mRNA accompanied by an increase in enzyme activity. L-Selenocystine significantly increased this activity without increasing mRNA levels. Sodium selenite, L-selenocystine, L-selenomethionine, and Se-methyl-L-selenocysteine all enhanced glutathione S-transferase activity. The increased activity with sodium selenite was accompanied by increases in mRNAs of Gst alpha, Gst mu and Gst pi classes, while for L-selenocystine and Se-methyl-L-selenocysteine, only an elevation in the mRNA for the Gst alpha class was observed. Gst alpha and Gst mu class mRNAs were elevated by OSCA without a significant elevation in enzyme activity. SCA and MSCA both elevated a Gst pi mRNA and MSCA elevated Gst mu in addition. By comparison, oltipraz only significantly elevated the mRNA of Gst mu, adding to the conclusion that across the entire study, no selenium compound appears to be acting purely through the antioxidant response typified by oltipraz. Despite their chemical similarity, the three cysteine prodrugs, SCA, MSCA, and OSCA, each produced its own unique pattern of effects on protective enzymes and none was identical to the pattern elicited by sodium selenite, L-selenocystine, L-selenomethionine, and Se-methyl-L-selenocysteine. The study also shows that after 7 days of administration, there was only occasional concordance between elevations in mRNA and enzyme activity for any selenium compound and for any protective enzyme, there was no response in common for all selenium compounds.
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