N-Acetylcysteine and safranal prevented the brain damage induced by hyperthyroidism in adult male rats

El-Sayed, Wael, Shahat AS, Hassan WA,


Background: Hyperthyroidism is associated with impairment in the neurotransmission and severe tissue damage in the brain. The present study explored the potential deleterious effects of experimentally-induced hyperthyroidism on the neurotransmitters, oxidative homeostasis, apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in cerebral cortex, thalamus & hypothalamus, and hippocampus in rats. Methods and Results: The ameliorative effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 50 mg/kg, oral) and safranal (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) against hyperthyroidism (L-T4 500 µg/kg, subcutaneous) were investigated. All treatments continued daily over three weeks. Hyperthyroidism was manifested by significant elevations in serum fT3 and fT4 levels and a decline in serum TSH level and body weight. It was also characterized by significant elevations in the levels of dopamine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, and monoamine oxidase activity to varying degrees in the brain regions examined and a significant reduction in norepinephrine in hippocampus only. Hyperthyroidism resulted in a significant oxidative stress in brain typified by elevations in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide content and reductions in glutathione level and SOD and catalase activities. This led to elevations in Caspases 9 and 3 and a reduction in Bcl2 resulting in DNA damage and confirmed by the histopathology of brain tissue. The administration of NAC or safranal with L-T4 prevented these deleterious effects by reducing the oxidative load and improving the brain antioxidant status. Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism disrupted the neurotransmitters in the brain which aggravated the oxidative stress and resulted in apoptosis. N-Acetylcysteine and safranal prevented these deleterious effects by enhancing the poor antioxidant milieu of the brain.

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Title N-Acetylcysteine and safranal prevented the brain damage induced by hyperthyroidism in adult male rats
Authors El-Sayed, Wael ; Shahat AS; Hassan WA
Issue Date May-2020
Journal Nutritional Neuroscience
URI http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/178140
DOI 10.1080/1028415X.2020.1743917

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