N-Acetylcysteine and safranal prevented the brain damage induced by hyperthyroidism in adult male rats
El-Sayed, Wael, Shahat AS, Hassan WA,
Background: Hyperthyroidism is associated with impairment in the neurotransmission and severe tissue damage in the brain. The present study explored the potential deleterious eﬀects of experimentally-induced hyperthyroidism on the neurotransmitters, oxidative homeostasis, apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in cerebral cortex, thalamus & hypothalamus, and hippocampus in rats. Methods and Results: The ameliorative eﬀects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 50 mg/kg, oral) and safranal (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) against hyperthyroidism (L-T4 500 µg/kg, subcutaneous) were investigated. All treatments continued daily over three weeks. Hyperthyroidism was manifested by signiﬁcant elevations in serum fT3 and fT4 levels and a decline in serum TSH level and body weight. It was also characterized by signiﬁcant elevations in the levels of dopamine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, and monoamine oxidase activity to varying degrees in the brain regions examined and a signiﬁcant reduction in norepinephrine in hippocampus only. Hyperthyroidism resulted in a signiﬁcant oxidative stress in brain typiﬁed by elevations in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide content and reductions in glutathione level and SOD and catalase activities. This led to elevations in Caspases 9 and 3 and a reduction in Bcl2 resulting in DNA damage and conﬁrmed by the histopathology of brain tissue. The administration of NAC or safranal with L-T4 prevented these deleterious eﬀects by reducing the oxidative load and improving the brain antioxidant status. Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism disrupted the neurotransmitters in the brain which aggravated the oxidative stress and resulted in apoptosis. N-Acetylcysteine and safranal prevented these deleterious eﬀects by enhancing the poor antioxidant milieu of the brain.
|Title||N-Acetylcysteine and safranal prevented the brain damage induced by hyperthyroidism in adult male rats||Authors||El-Sayed, Wael ; Shahat AS; Hassan WA||Issue Date||May-2020||Journal||Nutritional Neuroscience||URI||http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/178140||DOI||10.1080/1028415X.2020.1743917|
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