Biotechnological approaches to enhance the biosynthesis of ginkgolides and bilobalide in Ginkgo biloba

Sabater-Jara, A.B. ; Youssef, Sabry Mousa Soliman ; Novo-Uzal, E. ; Almagro, L. ; Belchí-Navarro, S. ; Pedreño, M.A. 


Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest living tree species and its extracts or powdered leaves are one of the best selling herbal preparations. The main bioactive constituents are flavonoids and the terpene trilactones, ginkgolides and bilobalide, which are responsible for their pharmacological activity. However, there are many difficulties for ginkgo leaves supply and the chemical synthesis is far from of being applicable for commercial-scale production. G. biloba cell cultures have arisen as a useful alternative source of pharmacologically active terpene trilactones. This review sheds light on the chemistry and biosynthesis of terpene trilactones with the aim of increasing the production of these high value compounds by biotechnological approaches. Different biotechnological strategies to improve ginkgolides and bilobalide production will be discussed, including screening and selection of in vitro ginkgo cultures, cell differentiation levels of these cultures, optimization of culture conditions, feeding and elicitation strategies. Special attention will be paid in developing new methodologies to enhance ginkgo cell biomass and provide high amounts of these bioactive terpene trilactones using large-scale cell cultures. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Other data

Keywords Biotechnology, In vitro cultures, Secondary metabolites, Terpene trilactones
Issue Date 2013
Publisher Springer Netherlands
Journal Phytochemistry Reviews 
ISSN 1568-7767
DOI 10.1007/s11101-013-9275-7

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