Expression of transforming growth factor beta-1 protein in aqueous humor and serum of retinoblastoma patients and its clinical significance

Azza Hassan Abou Ghalia ; Hanan Hussein Shehata ; Eman Khairy Elsayed ; Saffaa Saleh Mohamed ; Azza Mohamed Ahmed Said 


Purpose: Quantitative measurement of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) protein in both aqueous humor and serum of retinoblastoma children and its clinical relevance. Subjects and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in Ophthalmology and the Medical Biochemistry departments, Ain Shams University in the period from March 2007 to July 2009. The study included (20) newly diagnosed children with retinoblastoma in whom enucleation was indicated in at least one eye and (20) age matched children with ophthalmic conditions rather than tumors prepared for intraocular surgeries, served as controls. Twelve patients (12) who underwent enucleation (part of the 20 preoperative retinoblastoma patients) also were included as a follow up group. They were selected randomly from patients who underwent surgery. Histopathological analysis of the enucleated eyes was performed. Venous blood samples (2 mL) and aqueous humor samples (100–150 μL) had been obtained from all children to measure TGF-β1 concentration. Results: The mean concentration of TGF - 1 in serum and aqueous samples from patients with retinoblastoma were statistically significantly higher than the corresponding values in the control group (P values ≤ 0.01). The mean concentration of serum TGF-1 in patients with retinoblastoma before treatment was 433.14 (pg/ml) ± 56.29 SD. After treatment, it was 365.92 (pg/ml) ± 62.3 SD. This reduction was highly statistically significant (P value =. 013). In the control group; it was 320.8 (pg/ml) ± 83.19 SD. The mean concentration of aqueous TGF-1 in patients with retinoblastoma before treatment was 87.59 pg/mg protein ±37.98 SD and in the control group it was 23.06 pg/mg protein ±11.49 SD. This difference was highly statistically significant (P≤ 0.01). The best cutoff values of serum and aqueous TGF- 1 which gave the highest sensitivity and specificity were 349.37 pg/ml protein and 39.82 pg/mg protein respectively. All retinoblastoma patients had serum and aqueous TGF-1 above the cutoff values. Meanwhile, there was highly statistically significant positive correlation between aqueous TGF- 1 and differentiation of the tumor (P≤ 0.01). Conclusion: Increased expression of TGF-1 in serum and aqueous humor of retinoblastoma patients with high sensitivity and specificity and significant correlation with degree of differentiation of the tumor might be used as a molecular marker for the diagnosis as well as completeness of treatment of retinoblastoma. Also, it indicated a promising future therapeutic strategy based on its inhibition. Further studies with a large number of patients for a longer follow-up period are necessary.

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Keywords retinoblastoma;transforming growth factor beta-1;aqueous humor
Issue Date 2011
Publisher Journal of the Egyptian Ophthalmological Society
Source Journal of the Egyptian Ophthalmological Society 2011;104 (3):277-286.
Journal Journal of the Egyptian Ophthalmological Society 

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